"The freshness of a poem," Frost believed, "belongs absolutely to its not having been thought out and then set to verse" (Symbol 26).In doing so would bind the poet to a fatal compromise, one analogous to composing music to accommodate a pre-selected set of lyrics. Middle Form, in accordance, would be derived from inspiration.
Organic structure is easily discernable in Whitman's products, where the forms are innovative.
Whitman's poems do not follow established patterns in their composition, nor do the beginnings create rigid molds which would bind their own nether parts.
Acknowledgments This book seeks a double audience of ecocritics and Whitman scholars, a goal that has required me to draw upon the resources of a wide and generous community.
An anonymous reviewer at the University of Iowa Press and my own energetic students and colleagues in the study of American nature writing and environmental rhetoric have provided the impetus and good suggestions I needed to apply the new perspective and methods of ecological criticism to Whitmans poetry for the first time in a book-length work.
My graduate students at Texas A&M provided readings and assistance throughout the project.
I owe special appreciation to Soojin Ahn, Lynda Ely, Georgina Kennedy, Steve Marsden, Paul Mc Cann, Amy Montz, Dave Pruett, Matt Sherwood, and Lindsay Sloan.
Introduction "What does it think it's doing running west / When all the other country brooks flow east": An analysis of liberation in "West-running Brook," "After Apple-Picking," "A Noiseless Patient Spider," and "A Woman Waits for Me" In "West-running Brook," "After Apple-Picking," "A Noiseless Patient Spider," and "A Woman Waits for Me," emphasis on the structure serves to accentuate the fundamental theme of liberation as both Frost and Whitman diverge from conventional poetic norms even as they explore equally unconventional ideas. A quintessential principle proposed by Frost of which he endorsed both in his essays and in his finished verse.
In asserting the freedom of poetry from former tradition, he reaffirmed Emerson's doctrine that it is not meter but a meter-making argument that produce poetry.
"A Noiseless, Patient Spider", is marked by its use of juxtaposition and extended metaphor.
Unlike a metaphor, juxtaposition does not substitute one thing for the other, but depends entirely on the proximity of the two objects to infer their relationship.