Immediately after the opening comes the literature review, which describes relevant previous research on the topic and can be anywhere from several paragraphs to several pages in length.
An APA-style research report begins with a title page.
The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized.
Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles.
Some use them regularly, while others never use them.
The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.
The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.Below the title are the authors’ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliation—the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research.The opening, which is usually a paragraph or two in length, introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting.To capture the reader’s attention, researcher Daryl Bem recommends starting with general observations about the topic under study, expressed in ordinary language (not technical jargon)—observations that are about people and their behaviour (not about researchers or their research; Bem, 2003). According to Bem, this would be a poor way to begin a research report: Festinger’s theory of cognitive dissonance received a great deal of attention during the latter part of the 20th century (p.In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study.Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance.The introduction begins on the third page of the manuscript.The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page.