The Structure And Function Of Carbohydrates Essay

The Structure And Function Of Carbohydrates Essay-42
“Modern nutrition in health and disease” 9th ed., by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999 Stipanuk M. Biochemical, physiological, and molecular aspects of human nutrition.

Tags: Compare And Contrast Essays About Dogs And CatsEssay On DiscretionPerformance Management Case Studies With SolutionsThe Holocaust Systems Of Persecution EssayShort Essay Love StoryHow To Write A Proposal For A Business PlanFalse Confession EssaysClement Greenberg After Abstract Expressionism EssayComputer Science Doctoral Dissertations

Two sugars having the same chemical form (aldoses, for example) and the same number of carbons, but that differ only in the stereochemical orientations of their carbons are referred to as diastereomers (Figure 2.149).

For example, glucose, galactose, and mannose all have the formula of C6H12O6, but are chemically distinct from each other in the orientation of hydroxyl groups around the carbons within them.

Fructose and other less well known sugars are ketones. Thus, there are glucose, galactose, sucrose, and many other ‘-oses’.

Other descriptive nomenclature involves use of a prefix that tells how many carbons the sugar contains.

For example, glucose, which contains six carbons, is described as a hexose.

The following list shows the prefixes for numbers of carbons in a sugar: •Tri- = 3 •Tetr- = 4 •Pent- = 5 •Hex- =6 •Hept- = 7 •Oct- = 8 Other prefixes identify whether the sugar contains an aldehyde group (aldo-) or a ketone (keto-) group. Glucose, which is a 6-carbon sugar with an aldehyde group, can be described as an aldohexose.However, studies suggest that some people get at least 55% to 75% of energy from carbohydrates.It may depend on the amount of physical work done by people: the harder the work, the more energy they need. Living in a cold climate means a person needs more energy.Figure 2.148 - Common sugar structures Monosaccharides The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, and mannose.Of these sugars, all but one (fructose) exists as an aldehyde. By convention, the letters ‘ose’ at the end of a biochemical name flags a molecule as a sugar.Figure 2.150 - Epimers - D-Galactose and D-Glucose differ only in the configuration of carbon #4 Enantiomers and epimers Figure 2.151 - Enantiomers - D-Glucose (left) and L-Glucose (right) are mirror If two sugars are identical except for having one hydroxyl configured differently (such as images glucose and galactose - Figure 2.150), they are diastereomers known as epimers.If the configuration of all of the hydroxyls of one sugar is exactly the opposite of their configuration in another sugar, the two sugars are mirror images of each other (Figure 2.151). Please note that due to the way sugars are named, L-glucose is the mirror image of Dglucose.The list that follows gives the common sugars and their descriptors.•Ribose = aldo-pentose •Glucose = aldo-hexose •Galactose = aldo-hexose •Mannose = aldo-hexose •Fructose = keto-hexose Diastereomers Figure 2.149 - Diastereomers Sugars may have multiple asymmetric carbons and thus differ from each other in the configuration of hydroxyl groups on asymmetric carbons.On the basis of the number of forming units, three major classes of carbohydrates can be defined: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. omopolysaccharides if they contain only one type of monosaccharide as starch, glycogen and chitin; eteropolysaccharides, instead, contain two or more different kinds (e.g. Note: the term “saccharide” derives from the greek word “sakcharon”, which means sugar.

SHOW COMMENTS

Comments The Structure And Function Of Carbohydrates Essay

  • Polysaccharide - Wikipedia
    Reply

    Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. It has many uses such as a significant role in the paper and textile industries.…

  • Carbohydrates definition, classification, functions - Tuscany Diet
    Reply

    Carbohydrates definition, classification and functions. they differ each other for the monosaccharides recurring in the structure, for the length and the degree of.…

  • Biomolecule biology
    Reply

    Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids.…

  • Carbohydrates Essay examples - 576 Words Bartleby
    Reply

    Free Essay Carbohydrates and lipids/fats are a very important part of our. These macromolecules are large carbon based structures. Carbohydrates are essential to living organisms, and the principal role of carbohydrates is the production.…

  • Carbohydrate Definition, Classification, & Examples.
    Reply

    Carbohydrate, class of naturally occurring compounds and. essential structural components in organisms; in addition, part of the structure of nucleic. the role of monosaccharides in energy transferMonosaccharides play an.…

  • Carbohydrates
    Reply

    They serve as a form of stored chemical energy. – they form part of the structures of some cells and tissues. • Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic.…

  • Structure and Function of Complex Carbohydrates - Computer.
    Reply

    Complex carbohydrates are very common in animals, plants, and bacteria. They are constituents of cell membranes, as well as subcellular materials of cells.…

  • Structure and Function Carbohydrates - Biology LibreTexts
    Reply

    The building blocks of carbohydrates are simple sugars and it is here we begin our description. Figure 2.148 - Common sugar structures.…

  • Essay on Carbohydrates Neutral Compounds Biology
    Reply

    Find paragraphs, long and short essays on 'Carbohydrates' especially written for. Essay on the Absorption of Carbohydrates; Essay on the Role of Vitamins on.…

  • Biology Essay on Carbohydrates Organic Molecules Biology
    Reply

    Are you looking for an essay on the 'Carbohydrates and Its Types'. As the five-membered ring structure resembles the organic molecule furan, the derivatives.…

The Latest from blagostroi74.ru ©